What is Front End and Back End Computer Programming?

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Computer software is nothing but a collection of instructions provided to a computer. Computer Programming Allows a professional or coder to write code that controls the performance of a computer, application or software. Computers and laptops can do amazing things.

From the very basic spreadsheets, document creation, calculators to the great analytics capabilities provided by complex supercomputers that perform weather analysis and financial transactions, great things are possible in today’s modern world. However, none of this can be achieved without the intervention of a computer programmer. A program can be as basic as adding two numbers to as complex as adjusting the thermostat based on the readings from the temperature sensor.

Computer software like the one written for Microsoft Word in 1983, exists and is maintained with additional improvements that developers have added over the decades. However, programmers need to use special languages ​​to interact with computers.

There are several categories of programming languages ​​and their usefulness depends on the field to which the programmer is targeting and also on the final destination or destination. Broad categories include the following,

Figure 1 Computer programming illustration

  1. Machine Level Language: This is the lowest level language that represents data in a binary way i.e. 0 or 1. Because humans are not comfortable with numbers and prefer words and letters, soon the language was defined as uncomfortable and the programmers switched to assembly languages.
  2. Assembly language: The 0 and 1 in machine language have been replaced with some keywords to make life simpler, for example A for ADD, M for Multiply, etc. A translator is required to translate the program from assembly language to machine language so that the computer can understand. This was still a tedious task given the syntax and programming errors. Soon, developers moved to high-level programming languages.
  3. High-level language: In the early 1960s, the programs were written in English-language languages. It was a big innovation in computer programming. The translator has been replaced by a compiler and these third generation languages ​​(3GL) like COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN and C have taken the world of programming by storm. Both C ++ and JAVA started popping up in this generation.
  4. Language at a very high level: All 3GL languages ​​later became part of the fourth generation (4GL) languages. In addition, the 4 GL was more focused on database, reports and websites. This has led to the emergence of very high level languages ​​like SQL, PHP, Python, Perl, Ruby etc.
  5. Natural Language: With evolving applications and greater progress, we have entered the world of natural languages ​​where artificial intelligence and machine learning have taken a leading role. It was more about understanding and imitating human behavior patterns.

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This background provides us with a comprehensive graph of how computer programming has evolved over the years. However, our specific focus here is on frontal and backward programming languages, which we can say have appeared from the third generation onwards. In particular, the back programming languages ​​appeared earlier for the front end languages.

Front-end and back-end are two buzzwords widely used in the software industry. In fact, they will still take your computer programming skills to the mainstream and help you focus on core technology. In addition, the choice will inevitably decide how much you get paid as a software engineer.

The two terms go hand in hand to provide a user experience that is the most important factor today. As the name suggests, the edge end is the one that is at the front, meaning that the end user or customer is experiencing. While the back end is at the back, it may be a summary for the end user / client.

If we are considering any web application, we have the following main components as shown in Figure 2. The customer / end user requests a particular web page through the front end and gets the response through the back end.


Figure 2 Front-end v / s Back-end

Frontal development: The front of the site is all that is visible to the end user. This is the complete look and feel of any web page. The things that are displayed in the browser when an end user surfs the site, are all a matter of an edge front for him.

In conclusion, frontal development is the creation of the visual and tangible parts of a web page. Today, with a number of handheld devices and increased use of computers for every role, it’s all a matter of user experience! Hence frontal development is basically a combination of technical and creative skills. It is important that you have the ability to imagine as well as convert that imagination into reality.

With various devices where a web page can be accessed, it also becomes essential to create a dynamic and immersive experience for the user. The web page visible on the computer should automatically shrink to fit on a mobile screen, thus called Responsive Web Design (RWD). Frontal development began decades ago; However, it has improved significantly over the years with the advancement of technology.

Popular front-end technologies include HTML, CSS and Javascript. Today, however, developers use many frameworks and code libraries for efficient programming and display. HTML defines the overall structure and look and feel of a web page. It contains the various segments like paragraph, tables and images of web page. However, this is fine for a textual site.

When it comes to stylistic changes like background color, CSS comes to the rescue. It determines the appearance of a web page and improves the display style. It modulates the style task for the end user so that he does not have to modify the HTML part. Javascript layer, adds dynamic features to the web page.

It increases overall interactivity, responds to user actions and dynamically refreshes the web page. It is also popular because it provides a full stack of front as well as rear development technologies.

There are frameworks that support frontline development and make developers ’lives easier.

Frames provide a skeleton or template that will fit the entire project. It is easier for a developer to embed the code in these predefined areas. To name a few popular frameworks, there is the Angular.js powered by Google, Vue.js, Ember.js.


Figure 3 Front-end and back-end technologies

Rear development: As for the front, this is a user experience, on the back end it makes sense. You can not buy the dreams of the front end key for real-life applications unless it is backed by some business logic or code in the back. This is where back development plays a key role. The role of a rear key is more technical and deals with fulfilling requests from the front.

In this area, the developer deals with databases, servers and application programming interfaces (APIs). A single SEARCH button developed by the front end key needs a huge amount of logic at the rear end to deliver the actual result. In addition to the result, the time required to apply this business logic and appropriate time optimization is also crucial for the same.

Thus, every site that the user surfs, has a server, database and other applications that interact with the front end with the code generated by the back end key. JAVA, Ruby, Python, PHP are some of the most popular languages ​​for backend development. As you can see in Edge Development, Javascript is also a popular choice for backend development.

There are query languages ​​like MySQL, PostGreSQL for querying and retrieving results from the database. There are stacks like .NET, MEAN, LAMP, etc. that also provide a selection of programming languages. There are multiple frameworks for backend development like Express, Django, Spring etc.

A developer should possess the knowledge of both the front and rear technologies. They can not settle for either. this is the reason; Most of the works today are intended Full Stack Key, Which includes knowledge in both. The full stack key can render both – that is, the client side (front) and also the server (back).

As we will see earlier, the two technologies need to be in sync and cannot create magic separately. However, there are different ways in which they communicate. One way is AJAX which is an acronym for Asynchronous JavaScript and XML. It was introduced in 2010. The ‘asynchronous’ feature ensures that the web browser does not have to reload the full page when only a certain portion of the content on the page changes.

The page is only updated to accommodate the changes. Javascript as seen earlier ensures the dynamics. It runs the updates in real time while the customer watches the interactive web content. XML represents an expandable markup language that is a data / load transfer mechanism.

This helps prevent mismatches between different systems. XML is being replaced by JSON these days for more efficiency and ease. Today, AJAX is becoming less popular because most of the AJAX-ready frameworks are already implemented in them. Another popular way of communication between the front end and the back end is REST (Representative State Transfer). It is also an architectural design that helps to transmit messages between client and server through RESTful web services.



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