Before you start
This section tells you some things you need to know before you start, such as what you will need for hardware and software, where to find the project files for this book and more.
Section I: Swift Basics
The chapters in this section will introduce you to the basics of programming in Swift. From the basics of computer behavior to language structures, you will cover enough of the language so that you can work with data and organize your code behavior.
The section begins with some basic work to get you started. Once you have the basic data types in mind, it will be time to do so to do Things with this data, and finally, you will learn about an essential, optional type of data that allows you to express data that may be missing.
These basic principles will guide you quickly, and before you know it, you will be ready for the more advanced topics that will come later. lets start!
This is your stormy introduction to the world of programming! Start with an overview of computers and programming and then say hello to the Swift playgrounds, where you will spend your coding time for the rest of this book. You will learn some basics such as code notes, arithmetic operations, constants and variables. These are some of the basic building blocks of any language, and Swift is no different.
You will learn about handling different types, including strings that allow you to represent text. You will learn about conversion between types, and you will also get an introduction to type inference, which makes your life as a programmer much simpler. You will learn about tuple types that allow you to group values of each type together.
You will learn how to make decisions and repeat tasks in your programs using syntax to control flow. You will also learn about Boolean values, which represent true and false values, and how you can use them to compare data.
Continuing the topic of code that does not run in a straight line, you will learn about another loop known as the `for` loop. You will also learn about switch statements that are particularly powerful in Swift.
Functions are the basic building blocks you use to build your code in Swift. You will learn how to set up functions to group your code into reusable units.
This chapter covers options, a special type in Swift that represents true value or lack of value. At the end of this chapter, you will know why you need optional ones and how to use them safely.
Section B: Types of Collection
So far, you have seen mostly data in the form of individual elements. Although patients can have multiple pieces of data, you must specify the size in advance; A three-stringed tuple is a completely different type from a two-stringed tuple, and conversion between them is not trivial. In this section you will learn about Collection types In Swift. Collections are flexible “containers” that allow you to store any number of entries together.
There are several types of collection in Swift, but three important ones are arrays, dictionaries and sets. You will learn to apply custom and loop operations to collection types. Finally, revisit the strings, which are collections of figures.
All types of collection share similar interfaces but have very different use cases. As you read these chapters, remember the differences, and you will begin to develop a sense of what kind you should use when.
Arrays are the most common type of collection you will come across in Swift that maintain a neat list of elements of the same type. On the other hand, dictionaries allow you to search elements efficiently using a key. Finally, sets maintain an unorganized collection of unique elements. You will learn all about these three types in this chapter.
Once you have collections of items, you will want to perform actions with them. For example, sort them, filter them, add them, etc. Swift gives you a powerful, closing language structure that allows you to customize the behavior of such actions infinitely. In this chapter you will learn about Swift’s most common collection algorithms and match them with closures.
Word processing is an essential application for any computer language, and String is the kind of power Swift handles text. Strings are two-way collections of character types that balance correctness, performance, and ease of use.
Article III: Build your own types
You can create your own type by combining variables and functions to define a new type. When you create a new type, you give it a name; Hence, these custom types are known as Famous types. Structures are a powerful tool for creating models of real-world concepts. You can include concepts, properties, and methods related to a single, cohesive model.
Swift includes four types of named types: structures, classes, counts, and protocols. You will learn here how other named types use the concepts of methods and properties, how they are different and where you want to use each of them.
You will also learn about generics, which are types and methods that take as input other types instead of just methods, as well as custom types for building bigger and more complex things!
The standard directory has many useful types like Int, Double and String. However, unfortunately, this does not include the type of pizza. Structures are types that can store reputable properties and define actions and behaviors. You will define your custom building types in this chapter and start building a pizza empire.
In this chapter you will learn about stored and calculated properties, along with some tricks, such as how to monitor changes in the value of an asset and delay initialization of a stored asset.
Methods are just functions that reside in a structure. Take a closer look at how methods and starters help you build complete custom types.
Structures allow you to define your own names with custom properties and methods. In this chapter, you will get to know the lessons, which are very similar to structures but have important differences that you will learn about.
This chapter continues with the types of classes that describe how Swift supports the traditional concepts of inheritance and polymorphism. You will also learn about booting two-step classes you will need to build appropriate class hierarchies. This discussion will lay the groundwork for the use of these terms with Swift’s value types.
In this chapter you will learn about counts, the type that collects case values that are related to each other. You will also learn about uninhabited types and finally you will discover what is optional under the hood.
Protocols are a type that can bridge common behaviors between structures, departments, and counters by defining an interface or template for an actual concrete type. Protocols overcome the single inheritance limit you saw in classes.
In this chapter you will learn what generics are, learn how to write your own generic code, and look back at the generic types in Swift – dictionaries, arrays and options – from this new perspective.
Article IV: Advanced Topics
You’ve reached the last part of this book! In this section, you will delve into some essential but more advanced topics to complete your apprenticeship at Swift.
After reading this section, you will be on your way to becoming a knowledgeable Swift developer by delving into topics that even the most advanced programmers use.
You will learn to hide complexity in your applications and organize your code using access control tools and testing tools. You will also work on pattern matching, error handling and memory management, as well as types of encoding and decoding. You’ll also get exposure to the latest language features, including result builders and asset wrappers that drive innovative frameworks like SwiftUI.
And raise the level of how you approach your code by customizing operators and subscribers and leveraging protocol-driven programming using constraints to make generic code more functional.
Finally, you will get in – depth exposure to Swift’s original parallel features, which improve the correctness, safety and efficiency of parallel code writing.
Swift gives you powerful tools for hiding complexity and organizing your code into easier-to-digest units. As your code base grows, ensuring accuracy through automated testing becomes more critical in your projects.
You will learn how to set up your own operators and subscribers to make your types feel even more like structured language structures. Key paths provide asset referrals, and along with subscribing and dynamic member search, you can do amazing things.
Swift is concise and powerful language, but for specific tasks, it may seem too literal. Result builders allow you to create a domain-specific language, which allows you to compactly express complex values. In this chapter, you will assimilate a results builder to create fancy privileged strings.
With pattern matching, you can achieve more with less typing, which helps give Swift a sense of its modern language. This chapter continues from the point where Chapter 4, “Advanced Flow Control”, stopped and shows you powerful Swift dials that allow you to work with switch statements, tuples, options and more.
In the real world, you can not avoid these mistakes. Error handling error is what distinguishes a medium code from an excellent code. From addressing missing values and simple boot failure with options to providing more diagnostic detail using full error types, Swift provides language features to make your code robust and informative in the face of errors.
Swift has a powerful system for saving and loading your types to and from, for example, a file system, via the Internet or another communication channel. Swift has exceptional JSON format support that you will recognize in this chapter.
This chapter digs into the details of Swift’s automatic referral counting and memory management. It shows you how to avoid common memory leaks that can happen when you have an object relationship.
The semantics of value has a clear advantage over the semantics of reference in terms of local thinking but may lead to inefficiency for large objects. This chapter shows you how to get the best of both worlds.
Widely used in frameworks like Apple’s SwiftUI and Vapor, asset wrappers are a general-purpose language feature for building reusable custom logic that defines how an asset behaves. This chapter develops an advanced example and highlights some pitfalls to avoid.
From the standard library to generics written by the user, Swift is a protocol-based language. In this chapter, you will see how to achieve all the benefits associated with object-oriented programming while being able to avoid most of the difficulties.
Learn how to use constraints to make generic code more useful and how to hide application information by deleting opaque type and types.
Fast Parallel is a new way to handle asynchronous and parallel code. It implements built-in parallelism and provides language features that test many aspects of your code while compiling. In this chapter you will learn about these mechanisms and how players protect the common state of change of your objects without the need for a lot of error code.